Case 10

A 43-year-old woman, s/p mitral valve (MV) replacement (Bjork-Sheily) for mitral stenosis (MS) associated with rheumatic heart disease 18 years ago, was admitted with worsening heart failure (HF) with progressive shortness of breath (PND and orthopnea) and leg edema for the past three weeks.

Case 9

A 67-year-old woman experienced progressive dyspnea with PND and leg edema for two weeks. PMH was significant for chronic hypertension for 20 years.

Case 8

A 65-year-old man was brought in with progressive edema of the left arm below the elbow level for two weeks. It was not “red and hot” but painful. In addition, he noted leg edema, PND, and increasing SOB on exertion.

Case 7

An 83-year-old woman was transferred to Emergency Department (ED) from a local hospital because of a marked deterioration of general status while being treated with antibiotics for pneumonia for one week.

Case 6

A 35-year-old woman with Marfan syndrome presented with increasing dyspnea, fever, productive cough, and chest tightness for one day.

Case 5

A 72-year-old woman, who had been in the hospital for treatment of right leg cellulitis for two days, suddenly developed increasing SOB with worsening heart failure (HF) 6 hours after a blood transfusion of 2 units packed cells for chronic anemia (Hb 7.8 mg%) (Chest X-ray 1 and Chest X-ray 2).

Case 4

A 26-year-old Taiwanese man noted weakness in both lower legs and could not stand upon waking up. At the same time, he experienced upper back and arms pain and was brought to the Emergency Department (ED) in a wheelchair. There was no history of trauma, nor were there any signs of infection.

Case 3

A 62-year-old man was brought to Emergency Department for severe chest tightness of sudden onset, lasting 30 min. He had experienced episodes of chest tightness unrelated to exertion for one year.

Case 2

A 58-year-old man, who had been in good health, became infuriated after a quarrel with his wife for 20 minutes. He suddenly experienced severe chest tightness with breathing difficulty and collapsed.

Case 1

A 57-year-old woman with a long-standing history of bronchial asthma and COPD was admitted because of intermittent episodes of dyspnea associated with palpitations and general weakness for five days.